The Associated Press examines efforts to prevent the spread of HIV by circumcising "about 50 million men across Africa - where 70 percent of the world's HIV-infected population lives."
Increasing the number of men who undergo circumcision and increasing the rates at which women with HIV are given antiretroviral therapy (ART) were associated with significant declines in the number of new male HIV infections in rural Ugandan communities, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health research suggests.
Circumcision is one of the commonest surgical procedures performed on males. Opponents argue that infant circumcision can cause both physical and psychological harm, while recent evidence shows that circumcision is medically beneficial.
A statistical review of the past medical files of more than 300 couples in Uganda, in which the female partner was HIV negative and the male was HIV positive, provides solid documentation of the protective effects of male circumcision in reducing the risk of infection among women.
Three clinical trials in Africa found that adult male circumcision reduced the risk of men acquiring HIV infection from heterosexual sex by 51-60%.
Much has been written on the controversies and debates on whether males – from infants to adults – have a human right to retain their foreskin. The protestors have helped persuade 18 states to stop paying for circumcisions under their Medicaid health insurance programs.
In June 2006, the US National Institutes of Health announced that, following an interim review, two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya examining the link between male circumcision and the risk of acquisition of HIV infection in men should be continued.
In June 2006, the US National Institutes of Health announced that, following an interim review, two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya examining the link between male circumcision and the risk of acquisition of HIV infection in men should be continued.